Ancient India

The most important evidence of the civilization of the then Indians is the existence of writing. Despite the work done by researchers from many countries (including our compatriots), it has not yet been read. Undoubtedly, the level of fine art should be recognized as high — artistic casting, sculpture, making of amulets with depictions of complex mythological scenes.

In the material culture it is difficult to imagine the religious beliefs of the oldest Indians. There were not found any buildings that could be considered a temple, whereas in Egypt or Mesopotamia at the same time, temples were an important element not only of urban architecture or culture but also of social organization. Many material remains suggest that there is a deep connection between religious beliefs during the period of Indian civilization and modern Hinduism. And in ancient times there was a cult of the mother goddess, religious ablutions were performed, some plants (for example, fig tree), animals (bull) were deified, even an image of a deity very reminiscent of Shiva was found.

The level of development of productive forces, large cities, well-established warehouse and urban economy, versatile trade, notable manifestations of property and social inequality, the availability of written language and a high cultural level — all this indicates that the Indian civilization basically corresponded to its modern Sumeru with its slaveholding City-states. Apparently, both civilizations can be considered similar in the social order. But it is not yet possible to give a more definite estimate.

The emergence of India … The causes of the gradual decline of the Indian civilization by the XVII century. BC. E. Are still unclear. It could be important to strengthen the continentality of the climate, which, together with deforestation, could lead to frequent flooding. Internal social shifts are also possible, since the decline concerns mainly cities, the rural periphery, being much poorer and more primitive even in the heyday of cities, apparently did not undergo the same noticeable damage during their decline. It is thanks to this that such achievements of the Harappa culture as metallurgy, pottery and stone cutting skills were preserved, etc., but the traditions of town planning and art crafts fell into decay, the writing was forgotten. Ancient India.